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STONE FAMILY

TIME LINE

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Husband                      Simon Stone                                                                        (9th g - grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

Wife                             Agnes  ?

Son                               David Stone

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Husband                      David Stone                                                                         (8th g - grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

Wife                             Ursula

Son                               Simon Stone,1             B: Feb. 09, 1585            D: Sept. 22, 1665    

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Husband                      Simon Stone,1             B: Feb. 09, 1585            D: Sept. 22, 1665    (7th g - grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

Wife                             Joan Clarke                  B: Abt. 1597

Children                      Frances                        B: Jan. 20, 1619

                                    Ann                              B: 1624

                                    Simon Stone,2             B: 1631                         D: Feb. 27, 1708

                                    Mary                            B: 1632

                                    John                             B: Mar. 1635                 D: Mar. 26, 1691

                                    Elizabeth                     B: Apr. 05, 1639

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Husband                     Simon Stone,2           B: 1631 in England         D: Feb. 27, 1708    (6th g - grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

 Wife                           Mary Whipple            B: 1634                            D: Jun. 02, 1720

                                                                        Married: 1655

Children                     Simon,3  Stone          B: Sep. 08, 1656               D: Dec. 20, 1741

                                    John                             B: Jul. 23, 1658

                                    Matthew                     B: Feb. 16, 1659-1660       D: Aug. 12, 1743

                                    Nathaniel                    B: Feb. 22, 1661-1662       D: Feb. 24, 1661-2

                                    Ebenezer                     B: Feb. 27, 1662-1663        D: Oct. 04, 1754

                                    Mary                            B: 1665

                                    Nathaniel                    B: 1667                               D: Feb. 08, 1755

                                    Elizabeth                     B: Oct. 09,1670

                                    David                           B: Oct. 19, 1672                 D: Oct. 07, 1750

                                    Susanna                       B: Nov. 04, 1675                D: Feb. 04, 1754

                                    Jonathan                      B: Dec. 26, 1677                D: Jan. 07, 1754

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Husband                    Simon,3 Stone             B: Sep. 08, 1656        D: Dec. 20, 1741    (5th g - grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

 Wife                          Sarah Farnsworth        B:  

                                                                          Married: Abt. 1683

Children                      Sarah                            B: Abt. 1684

                                    Simon            ??            B: Aug. 01, 1686

                                    Abigail                          B: 1691                               D: Sep. 29, 1757

                                    Mary                             B: Abt. 1692

                                    Susanna                       B: OCT. 23, 1694

                                    Isaac                             B: May 04, 1697                D: Sep. 30, 1723

                                    Hannah                        B: 1699                              D: Sep. 27, 1723

                                    Joseph                           B: Mar. 08, 1702               D: Sep. 10, 1758

                                    Benjamin,1 Stone       B: Aug. 12, 1706               D: Sep. 23, 1758

                                    Lydia                            B: 1708                              D: Sep. 30, 1723                       

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Husband                    Benjamin,1 Stone       B: Aug. 12, 1706               D: Sep. 23, 1758    (4th g - grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

 Wife                          Emma Parker               B:  

                                                                         Married May 13,1736

Children                      Abel                             B: Jun. 03, 1737

                                    Benjamin, 2 Stone      B: Jun. 13, 1738               D: Abt. 1788

Children                     Peter                              B: Aug. 25, 1741

                                    Edmund                        B: Apr. 24, 1743

                                    Leonard                        B: Apr. 13, 1746

                                    Phillip                           B: Oct. 16, 1747

                                    Abigail                          B: Jun. 27, 1749

                                    Susanna                        B: Jun. 12, 1752

                                    Emma                           B: Nov. 17, 1753             D: Aug. 10, 1775

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Husband                     Benjamin, 2 Stone      B: Jun. 13, 1738              D: Abt. 1788    (3rd g - grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

Wife                             Prudence Farnsworth  B: Jul. 18, 1740

Children                      Ephrairm                     B: Jan. 11, 1763

                                    Lucy                             B: Aug. 22, 1769             D: Sep. 12, 1798

                                    Benjamin 3 Stone       B: Nov. 16, 1770             D: Aug. 29, 1831

                                    Abigail                         B: Sep. 15, 1772              D: Aug. 03, 1775

                                    Prudence                     B: Sep. 18, 1774              D: Aug. 04, 1775

                                    Phillip                          B: Oct. 16, 1777              D: Abt. 1800

                                    Phinehas                      B: Nov. 05, 1779            D: Jan. 11, 1846

                                    Prudence                     B: May 03, 1781             D: Mar. 05, 1858

                                    Edmond                       B: Jul. 13, 1783               D: Jan. 07, 1868

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Husband                    Benjamin 3 Stone        B: Nov. 16, 1770            D: Aug. 29, 1831    (2nd g - grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

                                    Catherine Kendall       B: Oct. 05, 1778             D: Apr. 09, 1834  

                                                                          Married Feb. 11, 1802

Children                      Benjamin 4                   B: Oct. 28, 1802            D: Nov. 25, 1802

                                    Mary Catherine            B: Sep. 18, 1803            D: Dec. 05, 1872

                                    Benjamin Franklin        B: Dec. 04, 1804           D: Feb. 16, 1812

                                    Cynthia                         B: Sep. 10, 1806            D: Jun. 22, 1882

                                    Syvia                              B: Aug. 21, 1808

                                    Marshall Benjamin      B: May 12, 1810           D: Jul. 30, 1885

                                    Caroline                          B: Mar. 10, 1812          D: Jun. 07, 1885

                                    Benjamin 5                      B: Aug. 24, 1813          D: Mar. 17, 1827

                                    Abigail                            B: Dec. 12, 1815           D: Jan. 02, 1855

                                    Catherine                          B: Apr. 07, 1818           D: 1878

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Marshall B Stone.jpg (27816 bytes)

M B Stone.jpg (30236 bytes)

Marshall B. Stone

Husband                      Marshall Benjamin        B: May 12, 1810           D: Jul. 30, 1885    (Great - grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

Married 1                    Emily W. Blair                  B: 1808                          D: Jan. 23, 1847

Adeline Stone Fowke - Frederick Luther Fowke.jpg (38817 bytes) 

Adeline (Stone) Fowke

Son Frederick L.Fowke 1857

Children                      Adeline Perkins Stone     B: Nov. 18, 1832            D: Sep. 27, 1916

                                    Caroline (Carrie) Stone  B: Aug. 22, 1834            D: Feb. 20, 1923

 

Catherine Stone Hudson.jpg (32037 bytes) 

Catherine Stone

                                    Catherine                         B: Mar. 01, 1836

                                    Laurestine                        B: Feb. 25, 1838              D: Dec. 15, 1910

                                   Emily-Ann (Emma) Stone    B: Jul. 12, 1839          D: 1919     Emily-Ann married Samuel H. Cochrane.    (Emma is a cousin to Caroline (Carrie) Stone and also Addie A. Gallagher) who married William Maurice Cochrane, her husbands brother.    (E(Emma is a cousin to Caroline (Carrie) Stone and also Addie A. Gallagher) who married William Maurice Cochrane, her husbands brother.    (Emma is Robert P. Kennedy's grandau

 

Azro Ashley Stone.jpg (40159 bytes)

Azro Stone

                                    Azro Ashley                     B: Jan. 17, 1840             D: Jun. 09, 1907

                                    James Benjamin               B: Mar. 18, 1841            D:  

 

William Stone.jpg (22690 bytes)

William Stone

In his Civil War uniform. He joined the army at age 15.  He died near St. Louis of Chronic Dysentery, being at the time of his death a Sergeant in Company "H" of the Fourth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. He was barely eighteen years old.    (Granduncle to Robert P. Kennedy).

                                    William                            B: Jul. 03, 1844               D: Oct. 07, 1862

                                    Gertrude                          B: Nov. 09, 1846            D: Dec. 11, 1846

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Husband                    Marshall Benjamin         B: May 12, 1810              D: Jul. 30, 1885

 Wife                          Mary Wallrath                B: Abt. 1814                    D: Apr. 11, 1864  

                                    Married 2, Abt.1848

Children                      Azro (see above)

                                     William (see above)

                                    Mary                                 B: Feb. 27, 1849

                                    Franklin M.                      B: Nov. 07, 1851           D: Mar. 20, 1903

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Carrie & James

                           Caroline (Carrie) Stone    B: Aug. 22, 1834          D: Feb. 20, 1923    (Grandmother of  Robert P. Kennedy).

                                     James Kennedy                 B: Dec. 09, 1817           D: Nov. 23, 1903    (Grandfather of  Robert P. Kennedy).

                                     Married 1854 in Whitby 

Children                     James Marshall

                                    George

                                    Robert Kennedy                B: Aug. 15,1861           D: Nov. 11, 1946

                                    William Dempter

                                    Thomas

                                    John (Jack)

                                    Mary Emily

                                    Benjamin Stone

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Robert Kennedy

                                    Robert Kennedy

FannyPemberton_age_21.jpg (45280 bytes)

Fanny

Married 1911             Fanny V. Pemberton

Children                    Robert Pemberton Kennedy

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Emily Stone Cochrane.jpg (20293 bytes)

Emma Stone

                                    Emily-Ann (Emma) Stone  B: Jul. 12, 1839             D: 1919

                                    Samuel H. Cochrane          B: Jan.20, 1837               D: Apr. 23, 1872

                                    Married Mar. 17, 1880  

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Marshall Benjamin Stone

    My great great grandfather, Marshall B. Stone, was brought to the Oshawa area by his family when he was about eight years old.  His father, Benjamin Stone, came from a small but old village in Massachusetts called Groton.  His mother was Katy (Katherine) Kendall Stone, from the Massachusetts town called Templeton.  They had several children, but the only boy who survived to adulthood was Marshall Benjamin Stone.

    Benjamin was born into a family which was old by New England standards, for its first members had arrived in Boston in 1635.  Like other early New Englanders, they could not accept the brand of religion practised by the Established church in England.  They were Congregationalists, people who believed that each congregation had to make its own decisions about worship.  The most important people in their communities were their ministers and their deacons, who were lay people appointed to concern themselves with the spiritual welfare of the members of each community,  Many of the Stone men were deacons in their own villages.

    Life was hard for all the first white settlers in North America.  They had to clear and break the land for crops, raise enough food to keep themselves from starvation, build homes, clothe themselves, all without the supports and conveniences they were used to in their original homes.  In addition, they had to find some way to get along with the Natives, and they didn't always succeed.  There were numerous massacres on both sides, kidnappings by the Natives, as well as full-scale wars, such as the King Philip's War in the late Seventeenth Century.  This War was named for an Indian chief who tried to unite the local tribes in order to push the whites out of New England, because he believed that if they didn't get rid of the whites then, the white people would eventually take away all the Natives' lands.  Benjamin Stone's great-grandfather fought in the King Philip's War and was wounded.  It was the merest chance that he wasn't left for dead on the field of battle.

    By the time Benjamin Stone was a young man, around the end of the Eighteenth Century, many of the oldest settled parts of New England were bursting at the seams.  Perhaps also, the Revolution helped to make people think that it was time to move on and make a fresh start.  And so it was that many of the Stones moved into Vermont and New Hampshire, both of which still had a lot of wild, uninhabited land at that time.  This was especially true of Vermont, which was a great magnet for venturesome New Englanders and a kind of funnel through which came many of Canada's American immigrants.  Vermont had already attracted to it Benjamin's older brother Ephraim and an older sister Lucy.  The Stone family history includes an interesting story of Ephraim's trip by horseback, with his new bride in front of him, from Groton to what became Bridport, Vermont, on the eastern side of Lake Champlain.

    By 1798 Benjamin had moved farther north still, into Ascot Township in Lower Canada, where he eventually held land on both sides of the St. Francis River.  He was joined there by three of his brothers and one sister, Phillip, Phinehas, Edmond, and Prudence.  Phillip died young, without marrying, and their is no record of Edmund marrying, but Phinehas and Prudence both married and stayed in the Eastern Townships.  Benjamin went back to Massachusetts for his bride.  He and Katy were married in 1802.  Most, if not all, of their children, appear to have been born near Lennoxville, Lower Canada. 

    In about 1818, Benjamin and Katy pulled up stakes in Ascot Township and moved their family to the Oshawa area.  Probably Edmund moved with them, as early records of the area include his name.  They were among its first settlers.  It would be interesting to know why they chose that particular area, but I suspect that it was at least partly because they had heard about it from friends or acquaintances they had made in Massachusetts, possibly, for example, the Farewell family.

    The area where Benjamin and Edmund had their farms was the southern part of East Whitby Township, close to the north shore of Lake Ontario, an area mostly settled by people from Vermont, New York, and the Eastern Townships of Lower Canada.  It is interesting that these people tended to congregate in the same area, since they did not all move in at the same time.  Perhaps they found each other through letters back and forth between Upper Canada and wherever they were at the time - Vermont, or even Massachusetts or New York.  Their farms were not far from Moody Farewell's tavern, a stopping point on the track between Montreal and Toronto.  Although this tavern can claim to have been one of the earliest businesses in the area, it was a pretty small affair, housed in a little one-story frame building.

    There are all sorts of tales about the origins of the Farewell family, many of whose members became quite prominent in the Oshawa - Whitby area in the Nineteenth Century.  What is clear is that they were early travellers through the Vermont funnel into Canada.  Also, as can be seen on old tombstones there, Farewell was a common family name in Groton, Massachusetts, the same village from which the Stones came to Canada.  Moody Farewell's son Abram grew up to be a clever and influential businessman.  He married Caroline, a daughter of Benjamin and Catherine Stone.  The Stones and the Farewells shared an American background, similar religious affiliations and like political convictions.

    Benjamin and Katy Stone built a school on their farm and three of their daughters taught there or in other schools in the area.  In early days this school house, like many others at that time, was frequently pressed into use as a church.  Benjamin and Katy would put up the itinerant ministers of many denominations in their own home.

    When Marshall Stone was old enough to marry, he chose for his wife Emily Blair, a girl whose family had also migrated from Massachusetts (the Worcester area), through Vermont to Upper Canada.  Emily had been born in Vermont, and so had all or nearly all her brothers.  In Upper Canada, the Stones and the Blairs were near neighbours.  For years the Stone family and the Blair family helped each other, as we can see nowadays by reading the census records, which may show us a Stone living in a Blair household or a Blair living in a Stone household.  Their connections went far beyond the marriage between Marshall and Emily.

James & Caroline

    Marshall's and Emily's marriage produced at least six daughters and three sons.  The three sons were James Benjamin, about whom little is known, but who probably died young, and William and Azro, who eventually went to Minnesota with their father.  One daughter was named for her mother, but the others had fancier names: they were Adeline, Caroline, Laurestine, Catherine, and Gertrude, who died as an infant.  Adeline married Abram Farewell's junior business partner, Job Wilson Fowke.  They were my mother's grandparents.  Catherine married a Mr. Hudson.  Emily married a lawyer named Samuel Cochrane and had three daughters.  Laurestine helped raise Adeline's and J. Wilson's children until she married a Mr. Patterson and started her own family.  Caroline married James Kennedy, an Irish architect, and in 1859 became the first white woman to settle in what is now New Westminster.  The Kennedy's arrived in British Columbia, via Panama, with a two-year-old boy, who had been born on a visit to Minnesota, and within a short time of their arrival, Caroline was delivered of another son.  Caroline, who was of course yet another travelling Stone, has written a delightful account of her trip to New Westminster and her early days there.

    Emily Blair Stone died young, in 1847, shortly after the death of baby Gertrude.  In time Marshall married again, a slightly younger woman named Mary Wallrath, who had been born in New York State.  By 1854, Marshall was forty-four-years old, with a wife, two very small children, Mary and Frank, and two sons by his first marriage, both of whom were old enough to be a considerable help on a new farm.  The girls had been settled with various families in the area.  Adeline, for example, according to family stories, was a school teacher.  Emily, the youngest girl, stayed with some of the Blairs.  Marshall and Mary decided to become pioneers in the Minnesota Territory, in a section which was just opened up along the Minnesota River.  Perhaps one source of information about the area would have been the widow of Marshall's uncle Phinehas, who had moved with her grown-up children to Lafayette County, Wisconsin in 1848.  Also, the territorial government of Minnesota had started an enormous recruiting campaign in the eastern United States and elsewhere in the early 1850's.  At the time the territory only included about 10,000 people, not nearly enough for statehood.  It seems to have been thought of in similar terms to much of "Northern Canada", but this was unlikely to daunt a person who had struggled and lived through two pioneering phases in Canada.

    In 1854 it was not so hard to travel to pioneering territory as it had been around the turn of the century.  The Stones could take a train from Oshawa via Chicago to some point on or near the eastern shore of the Mississippi River.  There they could pick up a ride on a Mississippi steamboat to the point where the Minnesota River met Mississippi.  Another steamboat could take them up to the site of what was to become the town of St. Peter.  This had to be easier than walking and riding many miles, possibly riding in small boats on the waterways, as Edmund, Benjamin, Katy and their children must have done in Lower Canada and again in Whitby Township.  Still, steamboat trips were not exactly luxury travel.  When they didn't blow up or suffer some other accident, they offered quite rough accommodations to all except the rich.  There was also a surprisingly large number of Mississippi pirates, who seemed to prey especially on new settlers.

    Azro Ashley Stone.jpg (40159 bytes)

Azro Stone

Marshall Stone was one of the first people to buy land in St. Peter but he also owned a farm in Oshawa Township.  I wonder who named the township.  Maybe the Stones weren't the only settlers from the Oshawa area.  At first Azro and, later, William probably helped clear land on the new farm, but by 1858 Azro had left Minnesota for Colorado.  Perhaps he had ideas of moving there, or perhaps he just wanted to see something new.

    Meanwhile Marshall Stone was made the first justice of the peace in St. Peter and officiated at its first marriage.  The St. Peter Land Company formed itself under the leadership of the colourful Captain Dodd, with the intention of promoting the settlement of the area.  The chief shareholders of the Company had big ideas.  They believed they could persuade people that the capital of Minnesota should be St. Peter rather that St. Paul.  As we know, this never happened, but even so, those were exciting days in the St. Peter area, as more and more settlers arrived to clear the land and take up occupations in the little villages around and about.  Even in its very early days, St. Peter always had at least one newspaper.  It came out weekly and reported on national political affairs, events in St. Paul, doings in the little neighbouring villages, the steamboat's arrival, the movements of the settlers and of the local Indians.  The newspapers have been copied onto microfilm and provide us with a fascinating insight into the lives and times of those early Minnesotans.

    The newspaper of November 20, 1855 reported that Marshall Stone's temperance speech in Traverse des Sioux had been awaited and greeted with great excitement.  An adjoining column carried a report from Mankato which stated that, "On the morning of the 8th, the citizens turned out, en masse, and broke up all the Liquor  Shops in town.  This was in consequence of Liquor being sold to the Indians; and our people tho't this the only way to rid themselves of the nuisance, and the annoyance we have lately had from drunken Winnebagoes.  Those who sell the Indians liquor, are worse than the Indians themselves.  A stop must be put to this traffic."

    The article about Marshall Stone's temperance speech makes it clear that not all the local inhabitants favoured temperance, but that the newspaper did.  Back in Oshawa, there was a similar split.  Many of Marshall Stone's Oshawa friends were staunch temperance people.  Old Moody Farewell had even closed his tavern when he was converted to the temperance cause.  A later Farewell had a lot of difficulty getting a mill raised near Oshawa because he wasn't prepared to provide a barrel of whiskey for the workers.  Fortunately, he was able to call on his temperance-minded friends to help.

    Another early newspaper story from St. Peter was about the formation of a county Agricultural Society, one of whose moving forces was Marshall Stone.  He would have been very familiar with the Agricultural Societies in Ontario and their contributions to agricultural improvements.  In Nineteenth Century Ontario as in the Minnesota Territory, Agricultural Societies were among the first organizations to be set up in pioneering communities.  Soon Marshall was heavily involved in organizing local farm fairs.

    When Marshall Stone wrote to the newspaper concerning the importance of starting an Agricultural Society, he referred to "this flourishing and fertile Valley ... its soft water and climate are unequalled in North America, and ... your numerous readers are the most enterprising, industrious and intelligent class of whom the oldest, and most refined States of the Union can boast ..." The Minnesota Valley and its villages imagined a bright and booming future.  The only way was up.  In the newspaper of June 25, 1856 we find the following statement:  "By reference to our Advertising columns, it will be seen that Boardman & O'Brien are on hand, ready to undertake the erection of all kinds of buildings, in St. Peter or elsewhere - from an improved copy of the justly praised Astor Hotel, of New York City, to the neat Cottage Residence of the retired Gentleman."  Fortunately, practical considerations were not forgotten in these grand dreams of the future; a sawmill and gristmill were going up at the same time.

    The Stone family arrived in Minnesota only a few years before the start of the American Civil War.  About five years later, the local paper, which was Republican at the time, was carrying stories about the disagreements between the Southern States and the North, but they don't give much sense of impending doom.  The events are described as relatively harmless but irritating, although to us they seem ominous.  The War must have been a terrible shock to anybody who got all his news from a local paper

    William Stone

Azro came back from Colorado and was one of the first to join the Second Minnesota Volunteer Infantry.  We know that William joined up as well, for on October 7, 1862, he died near St. Louis of Chronic Diarrhea, being at the time of his death a Sergeant in Company "H" of the Fourth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry.  He was wounded once, at Chickamauga, Tennessee, left on the field of battle and taken prisoner, released after ten days and sent home to recover, and then sent back to the front to fight again.

    For a little while the local paper carried letters and stories from their boys at the front.  On December 25, 1861, this story appeared in the newspaper.  "From the Second Regiment. - We have been permitted to copy the following extracts from a letter written by Lieut. J.C. Donahower, of the St. Peter Guards, dated at Lebanon, Ky., Dec. 18th.  The facts stated will be interesting to our readers:

    Our regiment arrived at Lebanon on Monday evening, the 9th, we having traveling by railroad.  In consequence of having an entire transportation outfit made up of green mules that had never been harnessed, the teams were of no earthly use to us; and , as they had to be broken to harness, it took them until today to get into camp.  Lieut. Haven of company A, with about fifty men for guard, was left in charge of them.  Last night he encamped the train near the house of Dr. Jackson, about twelve miles from camp, and desiring hay for the horses, he sent four men to the house to purchase it.  On entering the house they asked for hay.  Jackson inquired of them whether they were Jeff. Davis or Lincoln soldiers, and when they said Lincoln, he ordered them out.  After some further talk he came to the door with two guns, saying "This is the fodder I give you," whereupon he took aim, and as he did so, two of our men (with revolvers) also took aim.  He shot twice, both shots taking effect on Corporal Ahl, of company I, - the guns being loaded with buck-shot - the Corporal has two buck-shot in the left, one in the right arm, and two in the left breast, but he will recover.

    "At three o'clock this morning Jackson was arrested by Capt. Markham's Company.  The citizens all seem glad to hear of his arrest.  He is an intelligent and bold man, and it is impossible to tell what his fate will be.

    "There are eight regiments encamped around this town, and many more are expected shortly.  We shall not remain here long.

    "Lieut. Cox is unwell and kindly cared for by the family of a Mr. Ray, who, in common with the citizens of this place, are very attentive to the troops.  The small-pox and measles are about, but no cases have yet occurred in our camp.

    "The farmers are reaping a harvest from the troops by selling them provisions, fruit, and opossum meat.  Everything smells of opossum meat here - a proper mate for the moccasin in Minnesota."

    In this simple letter home we get a wonderfully clear picture of the early, rather quiet, days of that American Civil War which was shortly to become so bloody.  Such stories stopped appearing in the St. Peter paper and were not replaced by much information about the progress of the War, even about the specific battles in which the Minnesota regiments were fighting.  The paper was too small to send out war correspondents.  Rumours and fear were probably all too common.

    One thing that does become obvious from a reading of the local paper during the Civil War is that the Union Army needed more and more men, and that it was having a difficult time recruiting a sufficient number.  We can guess this from the fact that as time went by, recruits were paid for enlisting, and also from the fact that the local recruitment committee for the St. Peter area grew in importance as the War progressed.  The head of this committee, at least for the last part of the War, was Marshall Stone, and for his efforts he was made a General at the end of the War.  This suggests that he was a successful recruiter, but his rank also suggests how desperate was the need for recruits.

    The people around the St. Peter area had other serious problems problems on their minds besides the Civil War.  At the end of August, in 1862, the first word reached St. Peter of what became known as the Sioux Uprising or the Sioux Massacre.  Many settlers living in isolated homes in the New Ulm area had been killed, with hardly a soul escaping to tell others of the horrors.  If it hadn't been for the War, there would have been a large number of soldiers at Fort Ridgely, and although their presence might not have prevented the first killings, they could at least have gone on the attack afterwards.  As it was, the Sioux actually attacked Fort Ridgely.

    Because the settlers could not depend on soldiers to help them, they had to collect a defensive force from men who had not gone off to fight the War, presumably because they were too old or too young.  These men hoped to rescue some of the settlers who had hidden in Leavenworth and New Ulm and to carry out the wounded to St. Peter's so they could receive medical care.  They assumed, probably correctly, that they were outnumbered by the Sioux, and they knew that all their movements were watched by Indian scouts.  "The return march was commenced near sundown, and New Ulm was not reached until about one o'clock in the morning of Saturday, - This march was made through a country where a great part of the road ran through deep ravines, and where an attack from the Indians would have been dangerous in the extreme."  From the newspaper accounts, I get the impression that they had difficulty deciding exactly how to handle the situation and that they had no particular leader (later accounts mentioned Captain Dodd as a leader).  They must have been frightened, although the newspaper gives the impression that they gained courage from their belief in the terrible importance of what they were doing.

    Eventually there was a great battle at New Ulm between the Sioux and the settlers' "army" which was won by the settlers, with the help of some soldiers who relieved them after most of the fighting was over.  A number of settlers were killed, including Captain Dodd, and the wounded and homeless were evacuated to St. Peter.  The newspaper commented, "Too much honor can not be bestowed upon the entire fighting force at New Ulm.  Nothing but the coolest and most determined courage and the most desperate fighting saved what is left of the town and its 2,000 inmates, and prevented Mankato and this place from the same attacks as New Ulm.  Those heroic men stayed the tide of massacre and devastation, and deserve the heartfelt thanks of every citizen of Minnesota.  They stood like a wall of fire for one whole day's fiercest firing from the most savage of foes, cut off from reinforcements from all quarters, their ammunition giving out and their food rapidly becoming exhausted, and finally came off safely from a victorious field."  It was estimated that the Sioux outnumbered the militia two to one, although it is possible that these figures were exaggerated in the heat of the moment.

    Before the Massacre, it had been known that the Sioux were discontented.  They had been promised money on a yearly basis for several years as payment for their lands.  In 1862 they did not receive this money, because, as the newspaper reported, the man who was the agent for transferring the federal funds had embezzled the money.  The financial tangle still was not straightened out by late summer in 1862.  It was not helped by the fact that the Union Government needed every cent it could get for the War effort.  The Sioux no doubt felt cheated.

__________________________________

    The following letter appeared in the Oshawa Vindicator .  It was addressed to Abram Farewell and accompanied by a short letter from Farewell thanking people for contributing to refugee relief in Minnesota. Farewell referred to Marshall Stone's letter as the "following extract".

    Having been appointed with others, a Commissioner in the Refugee office, I have been spending a few days in St. Paul, adjusting the claims of persons against the Government growing out of the Indian Rebellion.

    The two cases from Oshawa with their valuable contents, came to hand while I was in St. Paul, and I found it necessary to pay $5 express charges, and then engage a train to take them to St. Peter, which place I reached in time to see the cases opened, and learned that the train had broken through the ice at Shacopee and wet, but not damaged, the contents of the cases.  The goods are of great value to those poor creatures who, having lost everything they possessed, by the Indian outbreak, are now depending upon the contributions of the kind-hearted to sustain life through the winter.  If the donors could have heard the many thanks and seen the tears of gratitude, they would have been amply repaid for their kindness.  May the consciousness of alleviation the sufferings of many who barely escaped the tomahawk and scalping knife of the merciless savages be the reward of the benevolent-hearted who forwarded the two  valuable cases.  The miseries of this Indian raid cannot be told.  Indeed, few made the attempt to describe the horrors of the late midnight attack by the savages upon the scattered settlements of Minnesota.  The frightful Indian whoop: the sharp crack of the deadly rifle; the screams of the victims; the murder of the men and children; the captivity and worse than death of the women; and a thousand other horrors are now borne and passed by in silence by our people, but there is a settled and determined purpose among all classes here that there shall not be a repetition of such scenes.  The Indians must be removed from Minnesota soil, and that forever. If the balance of those now in prison should not be hung, the people will certainly kill them.  What wonder at this feeling when half the territory of Minnesota has been depopulated by these demons; at least 155 persons have been murdered.

    When we were out on a burying excursion, we found hid in the bushes a poor Scottish woman whose husband had been murdered, and who had managed to get into the bushes with her three children.  When found, one of the children was dead, starved in the mother's presence, and herself and the two surviving children unable to stand.

    But enough of this, Minnesota will outlive what has transpired and will yet be the finest state in the Union.  God  grant that peace and the Union may be restored soon (although present appearances are strongly against the supposition).  You can have no conception of the state of things in this country.  Such demoralization of society could not have been anticipated two years ago.  Most sincerely, do I hope your country may continue to enjoy the inestimable blessings of peace.  God grant there may be left one bright green spot on this continent.

    Truly yours, M. B. Stone

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In December of 1862 a "Great Anti-Indian Meeting" was held in St. Peter, Marshall B. Stone being called upon to preside.  The meeting was held at a time of great public ferment over the killings of the settlers and amid much bloodthirsty talk of revenge.  The final paragraph of the newspaper's story about the meeting reads as follows:  "Seldom has this meeting been surpassed for wisdom, determination and spirit.  The great sentiment that shook every bosom was, that the guilty Indians must pay the penalty of their crimes, and the others - of whatever tribe - be immediately removed from our borders."  In course of time some of the Sioux were hanged for murder, but not enough to suit the local people, who believed that there were other guilty ones.  The Winnebagos, a tribe of Indians living south of St. Peter in the Blue Earth country (whereas the Sioux lived more to the West), and who had in no way participated in the Massacre, were made to move.  Their rich farmland was taken over by white settlers.  We can guess that settlers in the St. Peter's area continued to fear what the Indians might do the next time, especially with so many local soldiers away fighting in the Civil War.

    Meanwhile, Marshall's son, Azro, was away fighting in the Civil War.  He was wounded in the battle of Chickaauga, in Tennessee, sent home to recover, and then went back to fight the rest of the War.  He survived it and came home to St. Peter's when it was over.  Within a few years he was a lawyer and a married man.  He and his wife Sarah had four sons and two daughters, all of whom survived to adulthood.

    I do not know so much about Marshall Stone's life after the Civil War, except for a few things.  His second wife, Mary, had died in 1864, and he had probably married his third wife, Anna Johnston fairly soon thereafter, as he still had young children to care for.  He must have made at least two trips back to Oshawa, perhaps one before the War and one after, as he had his photograph taken there on two different occasions.  Also he was elected a Minnesota State Senator for one term of two years, 1872-3, during which time he sat on a number of committees, including the standing committees for corporations and for banks.

    It was this one little fact that started me on the path of discovery about my great great grandfather's life.  My grandfather F. L. Fowke, Marshall's grandson, died when I was a baby, so I know almost nothing about his family.  However, he had been a Member of Parliament between 1908 and 1911, in Sir Wilfrid Laurier's government. Our local Member of Parliament kindly looked up my grandfather's biography in the Parliamentary Library for me.  There I read about Marshall Stone's short career as a Minnesota senator.  So I wrote to the Minnesota state Library, where a wonderful librarian sent me every scrap of information she could find in her library and then sent my letter on to the Minnesota Historical Society, which I would not then have known how to contact.  I am forever indebted to them for their help.

    Marshall Benjamin Stone died July 30, 1885.  He is buried in the old Traverse Cemetery, which he had been instrumental in setting up.  And so his life, which had begun in the Eastern Townships of Lower Canada during his parents' journey away from old New England, ended in the brand-new state of Minnesota.  He was born travelling, and grew up in the Oshawa area when the first farmers were clearing the land and the first small businesses were just getting started.  Just as life was becoming more settled and comfortable there, he moved on to new pioneer territory, where the education and experience he had gained in Upper Canada made him a most useful and significant member of the new community.  One more travelling Stone had come to rest.

This piece was written by:

Libby Toop, Toledo. Ontario

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